The three main types of rodenticides are those containing anticoagulants (warfarin, brodifacoum, diphacinone [also called diphenadione]), those ontaining bromethalin, and those containing cholecalciferol.
Anticoagulant rodenticides are probably the most commonly used rodenticides in the world. Ingesting an anticoagulant rodenticide can block vitamin K-dependent clotting factor synthesis by inhibiting the 2,3-epoxide reductase enzyme, which results in a coagulopathy three to five days after ingestion (possibly sooner in immature animals).
Ingesting a bromethalin-containing rodenticide may cause vacuolization and severe spongiosis of the white matter within the CNS and cerebral edema. Bromethalin ingestion can cause signs ranging from tremors and seizures (convulsant syndrome) to weakness and paralysis (paralytic syndrome). Convulsant syndrome usually occurs at doses of 2.3 mg/kg and higher. Paralytic syndrome is more likely when a dog ingests a lower dose.
Ingesting cholecalciferol-containing rodenticides can increase dogs’ serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, potentially leading to acute renal failure and tissue mineralization.
This information is from the “Toxicology Brief” ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center.
Bottomline – Be careful when you set out rodent baits! Your dog may take the bait instead of the intended mice and get sick! If you think your dog has taken the bait, take him to his vet ASAP!